If we assume duties against all individuals of the moral community, do we have to assume the same duties for all of these members? Could it be possible that different duties against beings, who are morally considerable, exist or would that mean arbitrariness? The paper deals with these questions. It defends the hypothesis that one can assume different duties depending on the context an individual is living in. Thereby, the paper focusses on wild animals because wild animals sometimes live in a context, which allows that no positive duties exist against them. The paper also shows situations, in which such duties exist, and defends them against typical refutations. In the end it deals with questions about duties against so called „invasive“ species and how „invasive“ animals should be treated, since they are wild animals too.
Keywords: duties not to harm, duties to assist, wild animals, invasive species, ethics of nature conservation